Content Volume 2

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Link to Content Volume 1

Foreword. 13

1 Wars, energy and growth. 19 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

1.1 Britain invents oil geopolitics. 20

1.2 The First World War. 23

1.3 The 1919 Versailles Treaty. 25

1.4 The Second World War. 28

1.5 The Quincy Agreement 29

1.6 The Golden Sixties. 32

1.7 The 1970s oil crisis. 41

1.8 The calm after the storm. 40

2 Energy geopolitics of plenty. 43 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

2.1 What is geopolitics?. 43

2.1.1 The theory of geopolitics. 43

2.1.2 Application of geopolitics to energy. 45

2.2 Geopolitics, a consequence of technology. 49

2.3 Energy’s paradigm change. 51

2.4 The impact of the oil price slump. 56

2.5 Maritime hot spots. 65

3 The EU energy policy. 75 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

3.1 The legislative underpinning. 76

3.1.1 ECSC, the surprising initiative for peace and reconciliation. 76

3.1.2 Euratom, the second EU community. 78

3.1.3 The desert balanced by technology. 81

3.1.4 Energy in the Lisbon Treaty. 86

3.2 The Energy Union. 93

       3.2.1 A new energy strategy for the EU. 94

3.2.2 Towards 2030. 100

3.2.3 A new deal for consumers. 106

3.2.4 The dilemma of Member States sovereignty. 108

3.2.5 Energy security, transparency and solidarity. 111

3.3 The Internal Energy Market 113

3.3.1 Legislation initiating the Internal Energy Market. 118

3.3.2 The state of the Internal Electricity Market. 121

3.3.3 The state of the Internal Gas Market. 126

3.3.4 The need for infrastructure. 131

3.4 The Energy Community. 135

4 The EU energy security of supply. 139 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

4.1 Energy security of supply. 140

4.1.1 What is the energy security of supply? 1402

4.1.2 Addressing the security of supply. 143

4.1.3 NATO monitors its security of supply. 148

4.2 EU energy dependency or Gulliver in chains. 150

4.3 Producing oil and gas in the EU. 153

4.3.1 Norway, the special case. 158

4.4 The EU security of gas supply issue. 161

4.5 The EU gas dependency on Russia. 165

4.5.1 The Nord Stream partition. 166

4.5.2 The OPAL gas pipeline. 173

4.5.3 The South Stream Pipeline. 175

4.5.4 The Southern Gas Corridor. 178

4.6 The Mediterranean gas hub. 182

4.7 End to the insulation of Poland and Baltic countries insulation. 187

4.7.1 Electricity. 187

4.7.2 Natural gas. 190

5 Russia ― the energy giant.197 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

5.1 Russia and the EU. 197

5.2 The Geological “Scandal”. 204

5.2.1 The Energy Perestroika and Glasnost. 210

5.3 The Ukraine Issue. 219

5.3.1 Ukraine, a strategic transit route for Russian gas. 221

5.3.2 Ukraine and the price of Russian gas. 223

5.3.3 How does Ukraine use Russian gas? 225

5.3.4 Crises in gas transit. 227

5.3.5 Good governance, an urgent need for Ukraine. 228

5.4 The European responses to the 2006 and 2009 crises. 230

5.4.1 How risks of a supply cut were averted in 2014. 231

5.4.2 The EU’s crucial role in resolving the gas price conflict. 232

5.5 Russia and energy geopolitics. 234

5.5.1 Crimea and offshore drilling. 234

5.5.2 Russia and China. 237

5.5.3 Russia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. 241

6 Turkey and the Central Asian countries. 245 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

6.1 Turkey. 246

6.1.1 The context. 244

6.1.2 Adhesion negotiations with the EU.  248

6.1.3 Turkey, an major energy transit state. 248

6.1.4 Turkey’s difficult relations with Russia. 252

6.1.5 Turkey is heading for an energy challenge. 256

6.2 Energy and the Caspian Sea area. 258

6.2.1 The division of the Caspian sea 259

6.2.2 Azerbaijan. 264

6.2.3 Kazakhstan. 269

6.2.4 Turkmenistan. 274

6.2.5 Uzbekistan. 278

7 Middle East and North Africa energy geopolitics of chaos. 281 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

7.1 An historical perspective. 282

7.1.1 The erroneous division of the Middle East 282

7.1.2 The appearance of Saudi Arabia 285

7.2 The complicated religious Orient. 289

7.3 Saudi Arabia, the oil giants. 283

7.3.1 Exploring the actual strenghts of Saudi Arabia. 290

7.3.2 Preparing the future of Saudi Arabia. 292

7.4 Iran, the gas giant 298

7.4.1 The unresolved ethnicity issue. 300

7.4.2 The Iran nuclear agreement is realy about oil and gas . 301

7.4.3 The return of Iran to oil production. 304

7.4.4 The upcoming Iranian gas flood. 306

7.4.5 The false reason of the Syria War. 309

7.5 Iraq. 310

7.5.1 Iraq surprising oil resources. 311

7.5.2 Kurdistan. 316

7.7 The Maghreb. 322

7.7.1 Algeria. 324

7.7.2 Libya. 328

7.7.3 Egypt. 331

8  The global energy scene. 333 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

8.1 Two major OECD energy countries. 333

8.1.1 Canada. 333

8.1.2 Australia. 340

8.2 Latin America. 344

8.2.1 Mexico. 344

8.2.2 Brazil 349

8.2.3 Venezuela and Trinidad & Tobago. 353

8.3 Asia. 358

8.3.1 China. 358

8.3.2. Taiwan. 367

8.3.3 Japan. 369

8.3.4 South Korea. 377

8.4 Africa, energy abundance but fuel poverty. 384

9 USA, where energy is central. 391 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

9.1 Energy is USA and USA is energy. 391

9.1.1 Security of energy supplies and renewable energy strategies   394

9.2 The new “Saudi and Iran” America. 400

9.2.1 More and more production. 400

9.2.2 Panic on board. 403

9.2.3 Towards oil independence. 406

9.2.4 Is the shale oil and gas bubble going to burst? 408

9.2.5 The US refining challenge and the Keystone XL Pipeline Project.  411

9.2.6 The dilemma of abundance: to export oil and gas or not?   417

9.3 The Bureau of energy resources. 421

9.4 Trump’s plan for energy. 426

10 Energy and transport. 431 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

10.1 The energy-transport nexus. 431

10.1.1 Mobility, a fundamental need. 434

10.1.2 Trends in transport demand. 438

10.1.3 Methodologies to define efficient transport. 423

10.2 Technology evolution. 440

10.2.1 Improvement in engines and vehicle concepts. 443

10.2.2 Improving ancillaries efficiency. 443

10.2.3 Electric vehicles. 444

10.2.4 Water, air and rail transport innovation. 450

10.3 Gas in transport. 452 

10.3.1 change occurring at last! 452

10.3.2 Natural gas, a solution already extensively used throughout the world.  454

10.3.3 Natural gas in US transport. 457

10.3.4 Natural gas in EU transport. 460

10.3.5 LNG in the maritime sector. 469

10.3.6 Fuel pollution in the matitime sector. 4692

10.3.7 The IMO rules. 472

10.3.8 LNG as a means of limiting maritime pollution. 475

10.3.9 The Mediterranean Sea. 480

10.3.10 LNG in the rail sector. 482

11 Energy and Smart Cities. 485 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

11.1 Energy citizenship. 486

11.2 Cities – Key players in energy efficiency. 488

11.2.1 Local and regional energy agencies. 478

11.2.2 The Covenant of Mayors. 494

11.3 Smart Cities. 496

11.3.1 Smart Cities for citizens. 497

11.3.2 Smart measurements. 499

11.3.3 Smart challenges. 500

11.3.4 The EU and Smart Cities. 502

11.3.5 China and Smart Cities. 504

11.3.6 Spatial planning and urban mobility. 506

12 The Market versus ideology509 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

12.1 Energy and free market. 540

12.2 The end of resources. 511

12.3 The Gang of Four. 515

12.3.1 The media. 515

12.3.2 Irrational enthusiasts. 518

12.3.3 Wealthy entrepreneurs. 519

12.3.4 Subsidy abusers. 522

12.4 The Levantine Sea or the governments procrastination. 527

12.4.1 A new Norway at tge South-East of the EU. 528

12.4.2 THe Zohr perturbation. 531

12.4.3 The political EastMedc Pipeline. 534

12.5 The muddle of subsidies. 537

12.5.1 Generous subsidies for fossil fuels. 538

12.5.2 Generous green subsidies. 544

12.5.3 The Bootleggers and the Baptists’ theory. 545

12.5.4 Technology support. 560

12.6 Revival of science and market economy. 554

13 Annexes. 561

13.1 Conversion factors. 561

13.2 List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. 565

Index. 569

References. 585

 

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