Russia is a historical energy partner of the EU. It is necessary to grasp the international dimension of today’s Russian energy policy. A large part of this chapter is dedicated to the Russia-Ukraine crisis from an energy perspective; this will give us the occasion to study the Ukrainian energy situation and the crisis of the Russian gas transit through Ukraine. Thanks to the study of the solution that the EU developed to answer the transit crisis, we will see that very good results have been reached resulting in a marked reduction of gas supply risks. This chapter is not analysing only the relations of Russia with EU but we will also see the Russian strategy of energy demand diversification, in particular toward China.