30 years ago this chapter would not have been written. Today, energy is so closely related to sustainable development that the chapter became quite extensive because of the importance of these two key sectors in our society. In the first part we will analyse what sustainable development means within the framework of energy. This includes tracing the historical development of sustainable development and the fundamental principles of its relation to energy. After presenting air pollution, offshore oil pollution and the energy dimension of urban waste, we will address the notion of fuel poverty both at global and EU levels. The chapter concludes with a significant section on climate change since this issue increasingly drives energy policy in the Western world.